The Corresponence of James McNeil Whistler

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Paul Cezanne, 1839-1906

Nationality: French
Date of Birth: 1839.01.19
Place of Birth: Aix-en-Provence
Date of Death: 1906.10.22
Place of Death: Aix-en-Provence


In 1869 Paul Cézanne met Hortense Fiquet, a nineteen year old model, who became his mistress. In 1872 they had a son Paul and were married in April 1886. Cézanne's father died in 1889 leaving his son a large inheritance.


Paul Cézanne was a French painter who studied at the Académie Suisse and in 1863 exhibited at the Salon des Réfuses along with Manet, Pissarro, Jongkind and Whistler whose Symphony in White, No. I: The White Girl (YMSM 38) was being shown. Cézanne's paintings at this time were dark and passionate in both subject matter and style, eg. The Abduction (1867; King's College, Cambridge).

In 1872 Cézanne worked alongside Pissarro in Pontoise. The influence which Pissarro's art had on Cézanne is evident in a work such as House of the Hanged Man (1873; Musée d'Orsay, Paris). In 1874 Cézanne exhibited with the Impressionists at their first exhibition in Nadar's studio in Paris. He also exhibited sixteen works at the third Impressionist exhibition in 1877.

In the mid 1870s Cézanne began to see the need for a greater structure and solidity in art than did the Impressionists, and his work began to move away from theirs towards something more enduring and permanent, Cézanne becoming a key figure in Post-Impressionism.

In November 1895 Cézanne held his first one-man show, exhibiting about 150 works at Ambroise Vollard's gallery in Paris. In his last years he exhibited widely, causing his reputation to grow. In the summer of 1898 he exhibited (not entirely with Whistler's approval) in London with the International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers, an organisation of which Whistler was President.


Bernard, E., Souvenirs de Paul Cézanne et lettres, Paris, 1912; Ludovici, Albert, An Artist's Life in London and Paris 1870-1925, New York, 1926; Chappuis, A., The Drawings of Paul Cézanne: A Catalogue Raisonné, 2 vols., London, 1973; Rewald, J., Paul Cézanne: The Watercolours, London, 1983; Kendall, R., Cézanne by Himself: Drawings, Paintings and Writings, London, 1988; Monnier, Genevieve, 'Paul Cézanne', The Grove Dictionary of Art Online, ed. L. Macy, (accessed 22 February 2002).