Henry Vaughan was an art collector and benefactor. In 1881 he was unmarried and lived at No. 28 Cumberland Terrace, London. The son of a hat manufacturer, he was a founder member of the Burlington Fine Arts Club.
In 1886 he gave Constable's The Haywain to the National Gallery, London and a group of Michelangelo drawings to British Museum. On his death he made substantial bequests: paintings to the National Gallery, Old Master drawings, works by Flaxman, British watercolours and prints from Turner's Liber Studiorum to the British Museum; stained glass, carved panels and Turner drawings to the Victoria & Albert Museum; Turner watercolours to the National Gallery of Ireland and to the Royal Institution, Edinburgh.
UK census 1881; Lugt, Frits, Les marques de collections de dessins et d'estampes: marques estampillčes et écrites de collections particuličres et publiques; marques de marchands, de monteurs et d'imprimeurs; etc..., Amsterdam, 1921, no. 1380, 1381.